Estimates for the date of this Singularity vary, but prominent futurist Ray Kurzweil estimates the Singularity will occur in 2045. Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies similar to transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological improvement as typically having useful effects for the society and the human situation. In these ideologies, technological growth is morally good. Scientific advances and the invention of new concepts later allowed for powered flight and developments in drugs, chemistry, physics, and engineering.